Massacre of the Tories by the Sons of Liberty by Alonzo Chappel
To fully understand the events of the Great Revolution we must go back to earlier decades of the Glorious Century: the 1700's. Following France's defeat in the First Seven Years' War (1756-63), and the rise of Britain as the supreme world power, Louis XV, great-grandson of the Sun King himself, was forced to sign away most of France's New World colonies. This left Britain extremely wealthy. But still it had war debts, as it also fought alongside Frederick II, the Great, against the Austrians and French in mainland Europe.
King George III (who succeeded his grandfather George II in 1760) was the latest British sovereign of the House of Hanover, and he needed tax money, and the American colonies were a great source of that form of income. After all, the colonists had had the protection of the mighty British army and navy during the First Seven Years' War, so why should they not pay for it? The King could not run the government for free, after all. Even after the Seven Years', as late as 1766, the Redcoats were fighting Pontiac's Rebellion against those Indian tribes formerly allied to the French.
On October 7th, 1763, George set up the Proclamation Line to protect those "infernal colonists," and they were not even grateful! Taxes, taxes, and, above all, more taxes, were required to pay for the New World shenanigans and the expanding empire. The Parliament soon issued the Sugar and Currency Acts (1764), taking away the colonies' rights to print money, and claiming, "It is expedient that new provisions and regulations should be established for improving the revenue of this Kingdom ... and ... it is just and necessary that a revenue should be raised ... for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the same." Shockingly, these acts proved wildly unpopular and the colonists rioted in the streets. Late to the party was the Stamp Act (1765), which infuriated most Americans. Protests and violence broke out, which the British mercilessly crushed. Virginia's Burgesses claimed the motherland could not tax Virginians under British law, saying, "only Virginians can tax Virginians." The final kick in the crotch came with the enactment of the Quartering Act, allowing roving mobs of British soldiers and sailors to "loot, pillage, and make themselves at home on private property."
"These are the times that try Patriots' souls. Until the Tories are exterminated the continent will feel itself like a man who continues putting off some unpleasant business from day to day, yet knows it must be done, hates to set about it, wishes it over, and is continually haunted with the thoughts of its necessity."
"If we have to send one million British soldiers, or even George himself, straight to Hell to win our independence, then send them we should and shall."
"The Sons of Liberty warm the hearts of the continent with their quest for Liberty, Brotherhood, and Justice."
"In our search for the blasphemous Tories, we should base our tactics on Numbers 31: 'And they slew all the males.' "
This pumped radicalism to new heights, and Plain Truth was printed by the hundreds of thousands. It became standard issue for all Continental Army troopers, and if they could not read they were to have someone read it to them. A huge increase in the number of volunteers, and in Tories becoming Patriots, was likely a product of civilian readings. Paine was on the political ascent as "The Thinking Man's Rebel."
Upon the huge surge in patriotism, New England's armies doubled and resulted in the Liberation of the Bahamas in March. The amphibious invasion pummeled the British garrison there and set up a Council of Public Safety. When copies of Plain Truth were passed out, all of Nassau draped green, white, and red banners over every nearby railing. In a month, the Caribbean sank into civil war and revolt, which the British Royal Navy, busy combating the Second Rise of Piracy, was unable to cork. Prices for sugar in Britain soared, and extensive smuggling operations began, swelling the Continental coffers. A Caribbean native, General Alexander Hamilton, was placed in charge of conducting Caribbean military operations. A member of the Fraternity, Hamilton was a moderate, but he got the job done. In July, he had sent copies of Plain Truth as far as British and Spanish possessions in South America. A failed uprising in Colombia got so far as to have established a Council of Safety before the Spanish came in and wiped it out.
On June 4th, 1776, the Second Assembly signed and approved a unanimous Declaration of Autonomy, severing all chances for any kind of repatriation under the British crown. It was war, total and unceasing, until one side was beaten.
Shortly after the Declaration a new mercenary force arrived from Europe, 5,000 Poles, French, Russians, and Germans, and at their head was 56 year-old ex-Jacobite, William "Claymore" McClintock, also known as "Bloodie Billie." The Scot had fought in the Rising of '45 under Bonnie Prince Charles, where he had earned his nick-name following the medieval butchering of fifty British soldiers with his claymore, a huge broadsword he kept with him at all times. His troops were at the front of the American phalanx at the Battle of Long Island, where under his and Israel Putnam's inspired leadership, the Continentals heavily defeated both Howe and Cornwallis. A series of forced retreats following suicide assaults by the British eventually forced them to evacuate Long Island to the British.
McClintock had proven himself; he was quickly chosen by the Assembly as Commander-in-Chief of their joint forces. He foiled Howe again at the decisive Battle of Morningside Heights, which sent Howe's forces scurrying in disarray thanks to a badly-organized retreat. This enabled American snipers to have field days, and dead comrades mounted on pikes on the sides of the roads were common sights for the Redcoats. Numerous groups of pro-British German and Russian mercenaries fled after witnessing the brutal backwoods campaign.
As the British army ran south to New Jersey, Benedict Arnold, newly arrived from roaring victories in Quebec and New York (where he fought for the Green Mountain Republic) gave chase with several thousand volunteers. They pestered the British unceasingly, Arnold stating that "George's army shall die of a thousand mosquito bites."
Howe decided to make a stand in New Jersey. Things were about to get nasty.
Friedrich Adolf Riedesel, Freiherr zu Eisenbach
Russian troops of the American Revolution
It was time for payback. The First Seven Years' War had resulted in the victory of Britain, Portugal, Hannover, and Prussia over France, Russia, the Holy Roman Empire, Mughal Empire, and Spain. Now, in 1781, seeing a chance to avenge their losses, Russia, France, and the Holy Roman Empire declared war on Britain. Britain was caught so off-guard that France actually was successful in the Thames Raid, when several French warships sailed up the river and blasted London before promptly returning to Normandy.
Prussia, under the elderly Frederick II, engaged the Russian army five times before a peace was negotiated. Prussia's alliance with Britain was for all practical purposes dissolved. This left only Britain and Hannover to fight on.
In early 1782, McClintock was about to be reinforced by French and Russian troops in New York, Britain was about to launch a huge assault from Canada into New York, the Green Mountain Republic was finally crumbling, and New York City was about to come under siege once again. On February 5th, 1782, Britain began intense bombardment of New York City. The Second Siege had begun. McClintock, desperate for new troops, found a world of relief as the French and Russian navies engaged the British fleet in New York Harbor. Howe, commander of the British and Hessian forces, found himself trapped with nowhere to go. Faced with no other option, Howe stormed the city. With unbelievable ferocity, the British defeated the Americans and left mounds of corpses laying in pools of blood in the artillery-pocked streets. As McClintock evacuated, however, the British fleet was destroyed. On February 10th, the Franco-Russian army landed and began a counter-siege. Howe was trapped, and the French controlled the seas. On the 11th, a Russian force stormed the walls and took over a portion of the city before being pushed back. Finally, after fighting and losing so many soldiers that his position became unsustainable, Howe surrendered. McClintock made a triumphal procession back into the city.
General Henry Knox and Richmond Deputy of Public Safety James Monroe lead the October assault upon the Richmond capitol building
After the unofficial peace began, more thought was given about governments for the new independent nations. Georgia remained essentially the same under Bulloch's "loving dictatorship." Watauga elected to follow a fairly free, republican style government. The Green Mountain Republic, with its low population and high casualties during the war, was a dictatorship under Allen, but was actually quite open and free, almost libertarian. The other states, however, chose something else entirely.
During the war, the Continental Assemblies were the leadership of the colonies. But in actuality, local Councils of Public Safety, ran by Deputies of Public Safety, ruled with iron fists. After the war, the ramshackle group of regions needed a solid government to prevent collapse. So, in January of 1783, a vote was taken in the Continental Assembly as to which form of government should be adopted. With delusions of Roman Republican grandeur, the voters chose a triumvirate. On January 10th of the same year, Thomas Paine was elected First Triumvir of the American Republic. Aaron Burr was elected as Second Triumvir of the Republic. Finally, Thomas Jefferson was elected Third Triumvir of the Republic. The three men effectively took on the Assembly's duties upon being sworn in. The Oath of Office was as follows:
"I, (name), do solemnly swear upon my blood and my sacred honor that I will faithfully execute the Office of Triumvir of the Republic, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend our glorious enlightened nation at whatever cost."
This of course meant dictatorship.
In early 1799, Andrew Jackson returned from his Latin American adventure. He hardly recognized Philadelphia. Corruption was everywhere, including in the Triumvirate. Even worse, the 62 year-old Paine was bedridden after developing pneumonia, and his death was expected. Burr, as Second Triumvir, was to replace him. Jackson cringed at the thought; Burr had done nothing but support Paine. In short, he was spineless. And so, on October 1st, 1799, Jackson was called to visit the ailing First Triumvir. A scheme of a lifetime was about to be hatched.
Jackson removed his bicorne and greatcoat when he entered the Mansion of the First Triumvir and a slave took them and hung them on a rack. The young officer, only 32 and a full-fledged general, walked up a set a mahogany stairs and was greeted at the top by several periwiged white servants, both with solemn expressions on their normally stoic faces. They opened a large door and ushered Jackson into the room. In the far corner of the ornately decorated room, which was complete with exquisite paintings and portraits by Italian masters, laid Paine, looking extremely sickly on his bed, covered with sheets and and coughing severely. The general approached respectfully and raised his fist, saluting, "Long live the Republic!"
"Glory be!" Paine returned weakly. He raised his sweaty, boney palm and then let it plop down.
"You wanted to see me, Your Excellency? I am honored," Jackson said, giving a slight bow.
Paine grinned ever so slightly. "Yes, General Jackson, I did. I'm not going to make it. I wish I could serve the Republic till I was as old as Methuselah, but I fear I won't. Oh, well. Methuselah did not exist, anyway," the devout atheist chuckled. "I wanted to talk to you about Burr. In short, he is pathetic. He has always just done what I have done, but he won't be able to do that anymore. He'll have to make his own way, Jefferson will become Second Triumvir, and heaven... er, goodness knows who'll be voted in for Third Triumvir. I strongly think that Jefferson will have far too much sway over Burr. Even if you ran and won as Third Triumvir, and I assure you you would win, they would have a majority and would control you. It would be the end of expansion and army-building, right as we are beginning to dominate two continents. The time has come for change. I have consulted with many of our generals, including your friend General Monroe, and we have decided the time is right for a coup. I want to offer you the position of supreme leader. After that, it would be up to you to decide what direction to take the government. What say you, General?"
Jackson was stunned. He had just been offered the office of dictator of the entire country. "Surely there are better-qualified men than I."
"In short," Paine said quickly, "No."
Jackson pulled up a chair next to Paine's bed and sat down to think. After ten minutes, he answered. "If I failed in an attempt to take control, I would undoubtedly be charged with high treason and likely impaled. What say you, Your Excellency?"
"The army is behind you 100 percent. They practically worship you. General Monroe says he can, without suspicion, bring in enough troops to overwhelm any government loyalists and install you as leader. Hamilton says he can sway a large number of current politicians to join you. Now, Jackson, my time is short--literally. What is your answer?"
And with that, fates were sealed.
On October 28th, 1799, Thomas Paine died and was laid to rest in Freedom Square. A week of nation-wide morning followed, and portraits of him hung everywhere, even in other countries. Paine had been a main source of inspiration for the other revolutions; in South America, where the last European powers had been pushed out, special editions of Plain Truth were produced with a high-quality picture of Paine on the first page. A massive parade was held in Caracas, Gran Colombia, in his honor, which Jacques-Louis David attended. Some European nations sent condolences, namely Venice, Milan, Russia, and France. Other nations rejoiced in his demise, such as Britain and Prussia.
After the week passed, it was time to strike. On November 4th, Jackson met Hamilton at Hamilton's estate in the Philadelphia countryside. General Anthony Wayne was also present in the plotting, telling Jackson that he could easily get his friend Ethan Allen, dictator of the Green Mountain Republic, to support a new government. Following this meeting, Jackson, Hamilton, and Wayne rode in a carriage to Philadelphia. After rounding up fellow conspirators and an appropriate number of Monroe-supplied troops, Jackson put the plan into action.
At noon, 800 infantrymen suddenly left their stations around the city and marched to the capitol. Ten cannons were arranged around all the exits, and the cavalry circled around the surrounding property, making sure they were a second ring to nab anyone who tried to escape. Finally, Jackson mounted his horse and galloped up the stairs of America's seat of government, backed-up by a squad of dragoons on foot; the strongest, beefiest soldiers in Philadelphia. He rode the horse up a flight of marble stairs and pointed his drawn sword at the locked oaken doors of Administrative Hall, where the Triumvirs and their advisers sat and carried on their business. The muscle-bound dragoons used their carbines and jackbooted feet to kick in the doors, which fell off their hinges with a bang. In a flash, the troops were upon the officials. Jefferson and Burr fled down a secret escape tunnel behind a painting of Benjamin Franklin, but the troops were far too fast for them, and they were promptly seized. The Triumvirate Guards, the government's most radical soldiers, rushed in to stop the coup, and shots flew back and forth. In the crossfire, old patriot Patrick Henry was struck in the shoulder. He staggered and fell out a window and died on the cobbled ground below. Jackson put himself in the middle of the fighting, and used his sword to run several Guards through. Thomas Mifflin, an old key player in Revolutionary politics and one of the Triumvirate's advisers, joined the Guards, and was killed by a sabre strike to the jugular vein. He fell dead, blood spurting out his mouth. In the ensuing hour, the Guards were slowly pushed back and out. Once pushed out the front doors of the capitol, the firing squads outside opened fire. Screaming in horror, the Guards fled in every direction. That was when the cannons opened up. In twenty seconds, 200 Guards were killed.
Jackson had been somewhat skeptical about Hamilton's plan for a monarchy. His huge popularity made him untouchable, claimed Hamilton, and the people would welcome it just as they had welcomed the 4th of November Coup d'etat. Upon consulting with high-ranking officers and government officials, Jackson realized that even if some of the citizens did turn violent over a monarchy, the majority would instantly brand them traitors and report them. On January 1st, 1805, the Coronation of His Majesty King Andrew I, of the House of Jackson, the First King of America was to take place.
- Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington,in an 1806 letter to Prime Minister Sydney Smythe (elected in 1804 from the Cheshire Constituency
"The World of Islam quivers in fear of the Emperor. They shall soon start bowing toward Vienna when they pray to Allah." - Holy Roman Field Marshal Alfred Ferdinand
Rare photograph of Turkish Istanbul (Constantinople) from around 1848; the photo of the mosque is one of only five known photos taken before the city fell to Christian hands in 1849 during the so-called "Revenge of Constantine XI," who died defending the city during the 1453 conquering by Sultan Mehmed II.
Field Marshal Alfred Candidus Ferdinand, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, Holy Roman Commander during the Invasion of the Ottoman Empire
When Istanbul was completely ripped from the Sultan's hands by September 15, the Holy Roman Imperial Army, under Czech Supreme Commander Johann Josef Wenzel (Anton Franz Karl) Graf Radetzky von Radetz, made a direct attack into Anatolia, although von Radetz personally remained behind to be military governor of Constantinople. Instead, Field Marshal Alfred Candidus Ferdinand lead the majority of the invasion army, although General Heinrich von Hess exercised much of his own judgement during his attacks in the south by way of naval invasion. The Roman Emperor Elect was playing for keeps, something which was urged in the original 1799 conflict. No treaty or peace would be arrived at. The Ottoman Empire was to be conquered completely and the Catholic Faith and Hapsburg Banner would be carried to the Euphrates and the Red Sea. The Holy Land sacred to every member of the Faith. A New Crusade. In fact, when the war broke out, Kaiser Ferdinand christened it the Tenth Crusade.